Corn syrup with high fructose (High-fructose corn) syrup (HFCS) is liquid sugar, without colour, transparent, has a sweet taste and a special type of corn sweeteners where a part of dextrose in them becomes fructose enzymatically. Via this operation, the sweetness of the product will be doubled. Syrup production with high fructose is one of the most important achievement in corn syrup production industry were such syrup has the same sweetness as sucrose.
Corn syrup production or Glucose syrup is one of the food product from Starch that has a wide application in food industry. Glucose syrup can be considered as the most important multipurpose candied additives. Economic Commission for Europe has defined Glucose syrup as a purified water and condensed glucose, Maltose, and Glucose polymers that obtained from hydrolysis part controlled Starch. From the perspective of Codex Committee on Food, Glucose syrup is defined as the Polysaccharides nutritious purified product from Starch. Therefore, Glucose syrup can be considered as a Hydrolysis of starch products. About 70 percent of produced starch in the world converts to the sweetener glucose. In fact, the hydrolysis of starch products is as old as life goes because when starch is eaten, the acid and enzymes available in the digestive system of these macromolecules converts starch to glucose. This digestion process is similar to starch sweeteners manufacturing industry today. Starch is the only raw material needed for industrial production to produce variety of sweeteners known as glucose syrup. After cellulose, starch is the most abundant organic compound in nature that has an important role in human nutrition. During the last decades, starch’s importance as a raw material has increased significantly in the industrial world and its applications has increased more than ever. Starch extraction industry of Cereals is considered as one of the main industries in the food industry. In developed countries, starch is used more as a raw material in a wide range of products including sweeteners to replace Sucrose or sugar in the food industry.
This makes Glucose syrups sweetened competition (Sucrose) limited because sucrose 3 or 4 times sweeter than common types of hydrolysis of starch syrup. Glucose syrup with higher DE produces high fructose syrups which are sweeter than glucose syrup. This has caused this product to be used as a major economic additive in the beverage industry. The key factors which play an important role in the success of this product as food additives, are their flexibility in many various application cases such as Osmotic pressure (for the purposes of food maintenance), viscosity, sweet properties, the reaction of Maylard, has very important role in controlling the crystallisation of sucrose, anti-foam, supply of surface gloss products, freezing temperature control and controlled fermentation.
1- Fructose syrup production process
First, the complete starch hydrolysis is converted to Glucose. Then, the Glucose solution passed from pillars which contains enzyme glucose isomerase. In this stage, part of the glucose converts to fructose. The product obtained is high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), containing 58% glucose and 42 percent fructose. To produce a syrup with higher fructose proportion (which may be required in some cases such as carbonated drinks with almost 55% of fructose in the syrup used) the resulting syrup must pass from the bed of ion exchange resin that takes these resins fructose and deconstruct them. Finally, high fructose syrup is prepared.
2 - The use of fructose syrup
Due to the properties of fructose such as ease of metabolism, intensify flavours, thickening and etc, it is used in numerous technological features in the confectionery industry, canning, soft drinks, drawing jam and etc. Due to high sweetness of fructose, these syrups are superior lubricity in products without sacrificing taste value which also reduces the number of calories. Also, due to physiologically predisposed of fructose under reaction, they are sometimes referred to as high glucose metabolism. Fructose is also used in the leather industry, textile, paper-making and cosmetic preparations.